You cannot get a Russian visa while you are in the country. Russian embassies and consulates outside the Russian Federation are the only ones issuing these visas.
You cannot extend Russian tourist visas. However, the local department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs may extend your visa for a maximum of 10 days or an extended period upon receiving a request in case of a serious illness, urgent treatments, an accident, death of a near relative, missing your flight, or a seat on your flight was unavailable in case of an open-dated ticket.
In case you are holding a work visa or a student visa, they can be extended in those same visa categories. However, before extending them you should check all the details with your employer/university.
So, your visa is expired, what is your next step? First of all, you need a valid visa to leave Russia. Travellers who overstay their visa will be prevented from departing the country. Therefore, they need to get something called an exit visa.
How do you go about that? The person or the entity which issued you your Russian visa invitation needs to present to the Main Directorate for Migration Affairs (former FMS – Federal Migration Service) the following:
– a letter of request for the exit visa;
– your passport;
– two photos;
– travel ticket with a set date;
– visa fee;
– fine for overstaying the visa.
After you received your exit visa, you will need to leave the country in 10 days.
Always make sure while initially applying for your Russian visa how long you are planning to stay, so scenarios like these won’t happen and you won’t have any trouble with the authorities.