During ancient times, passports and visas were practically the same things. You only needed one travel document and you could acquire it only if you were an emperor of some sort. Regular folk didn’t have this advantage.
China offers three possibilities of entering the country without a visa depending on your passport: 24-hour TWOV, 72-hour TWOV, and 144-hour TWOV. After these time periods, your transit must end and you must depart China.
A Schengen visa allows citizens of non-Schengen countries to visit or transit through Schengen area. There are three types of Schengen visas: Uniform Schengen visa (USV), Limited territorial validity visa (LTV). and National visa.